TYT Hour – July 1st, 2010

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Thursday, July 22nd, 1965

Thursday, July 22nd, 1965
Virginia Western
Image by Jon Person
… the voice is very old. It struggles at times, but limited only by the body… the mind behind it is strong and vivid, anchored in the satisfaction of a long, meaningful life. You recognize the voice as your own. Another time, another you?

This is a railroad that runs through a beautiful and ageless land, a railroad that carries no passengers, no mail, and very little freight. It is a railroad loved by everyone who knows it, and to a fortunate few it offers an ever-changing spectacle of scenery.

In the early 1890s it was the Abingdon Coal and Iron Company Railroad and that was its beginning. Then, in 1900, it became the Virginia-Carolina Railroad and its tracks ran 16 miles into Damascus. It slowly grew into the mountains, following the booming lumber industry, and in 1918 it became a part of the Norfolk and Western system, and its name was changed to the Abingdon Branch, although people still called it the Virginia Creeper. Seven trains a day wound into the hills. People like myself depended upon the railroad for mail, for news, for goods, for transportation.

But the depression came and lumber industry faltered. Freight business dropped. The automobile became the method of transportation.

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Workshop on Computational Aspects in the Control of Flexible Systems. Two Volumes. Part One and Part Two. NASA Technical Memorandum 101578. Held at the Royce Hotel in Williamsburg, Virginia. July 12-14, 1988. Compiled by Larry Taylor

Workshop on Computational Aspects in the Control of Flexible Systems. Two Volumes. Part One and Part Two. NASA Technical Memorandum 101578. Held at the Royce Hotel in Williamsburg, Virginia. July 12-14, 1988. Compiled by Larry Taylor

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Film Fun Magazine..March 1925…”IS LOVE EVERYTHING?” …..item 1..Phone bill cramming costs billions–Carriers get a fee for placing third-party charges on bills (July 14, 2011) …

Film Fun Magazine..March 1925…”IS LOVE EVERYTHING?” …..item 1..Phone bill cramming costs billions–Carriers get a fee for placing third-party charges on bills (July 14, 2011) …
Virginia Homes For Sale
Image by marsmet523
Telephone carriers have made more than billion[b] in revenue from third-party charges in the past decade, said Senator John "Jay" Rockefeller, a West Virginia Democrat and committee chairman. Carriers get a fee for placing third-party charges on bills, according to the report.

…..item 1)…..PCWorld…Business and Home….Senate report: Phone bill cramming costs billions
Businesses and consumers pay for unauthorized third-party telephone charges, the report says

Grant Gross (IDG News Service) — 14 July, 2011 02:27

www.pcworld.idg.com.au/article/393499/senate_report_phone…

Third-party charges on U.S. consumer and business telephone bills, most of them unauthorized by the customer, amount to US billion a year, according to a new report from a U.S. Senate committee.

Unauthorized third-party charges on telephone bills, often called cramming, cost one national retail chain 0,000 over the last decade, not including the 0,000 the company spent to fight the mystery charges, said the report, resulting from a year-long investigation by the Senate Commerce, Science and Transportation Committee.

Telephone carriers have made more than billion[b] in revenue from third-party charges in the past decade, said Senator John "Jay" Rockefeller, a West Virginia Democrat and committee chairman. Carriers get a fee for placing third-party charges on bills, according to the report.

In the late 1990s, after congressional hearings on cramming, carriers promised to fix the problem, Rockefeller said during a committee hearing Wednesday. "Congress took their word for it," he said. "But what we now know is that the cramming problem wasn’t solved. Far from it."

Rockefeller ripped into telephone companies and trade group the United States Telecom Association for not taking stronger action against crammers. "Why not ban it?" he said. "Why put people through that? It doesn’t make any sense."

Telephone carriers will work with Congress to fix the problem, said Walter McCormick Jr., president and CEO of the trade group. He said he couldn’t answer Rockfeller’s questions about why carriers permit unauthorized third-party billing, but he said it’s difficult for carriers to determine which third-party charges are legitimate.

Revenues from allowing third-party billing amounts to about one tenth of 1 percent of carrier revenue, McCormick said. He promised to ask carriers about banning all third-party billing after a grilling from Rockefeller.

Congress originally required carriers to allow third-party charges as a way to allow customers to see their local and long-distance phone charges on the same bill, if they were provided by different carriers, McCormick said. Many carriers refund third-party charges after the first complaint by a customer, and many offer services to block all third-party charges, he said.

Rockefeller called on Congress to take action. Representatives of the attorneys general offices in Illinois and Vermont asked the committee to pass legislation that would ban most third-party charges on telephone bills.

Cramming happens when businesses add charges to a customer’s phone bill without permission. In some cases, the crammers get the telephone number when a customer signs up for a free offer online, but in other cases, the crammers apparently pull telephone numbers at random, witnesses said.

Only about 1 percent of third-party charges on telephone bills are legitimate, said David Spofford, CEO of Xigo, a vendor that monitors telephone charges for other companies.

Cramming charges can be for as little as .99 a month, but Illinois investigators have found charges of up to a month, said Lisa Madigan, the attorney general there. The charges are sometimes described as website design and hosting, search engine optimization and online yellow pages listings.

Corporate victims of cramming in recent years include Hewlett-Packard, IBM, AT&T, Dell, State Farm, Citigroup, American Airlines, Pepsi, Wal-Mart and Best Buy, according to the committee report. Large businesses with multiple locations are particularly susceptible to cramming, because of confusion over whether the charges were authorized, the report said. The report lists more than 200 business that have been victims of cramming, as well as several nonprofits, schools, and government agencies.

Susan Eppley, who worked in Georgia as accounts payable manager for a company operating fast food restaurants, said she discovered ,200 in cramming charges in late 2010. She spent about 15 hours working to get the money back, she told the committee.

"It is infuriating to me that it is legal for companies to, without authorization, charge your businesses … and, in effect, take money out of the hands of hard-working, deserving men and women," she said.

Wednesday’s hearing focused on landline phones, but witnesses said the problem was growing for mobile users as well. It may be tougher to target on mobile services, because of a number of legitimate add-on charges, including ring tones, witnesses said.

The hearing came a day after the U.S. Federal Communications Commission proposed new rules that would require landline telephone carriers to notify customers at the point of sale and on each bill of the option to block third-party charges on their phone bills. The proposed rules would require both landline and mobile carriers to include notices on their phone bills and websites saying customers can file complaints about mystery fees with the FCC.

Grant Gross covers technology and telecom policy in the U.S. government for The IDG News Service. Follow Grant on Twitter at GrantGross. Grant’s e-mail address is grant_gross@idg.com.
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The minister and the Christian church: A report of the third annual seminar sponsored by the School of Religion of Virginia Union University, Richmond, Virginia, July 31-August 17, 1962

The minister and the Christian church: A report of the third annual seminar sponsored by the School of Religion of Virginia Union University, Richmond, Virginia, July 31-August 17, 1962

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The minister and the Christian church: A report of the second annual seminar sponsored by the School of Religion of Virginia Union University, Richmond, Virginia, July 25-August 11, 1961

The minister and the Christian church: A report of the second annual seminar sponsored by the School of Religion of Virginia Union University, Richmond, Virginia, July 25-August 11, 1961

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