“Prejudice so prevalent in the present generation”: Slavery at the College of William & Mary Exhibit

“Prejudice so prevalent in the present generation”: Slavery at the College of William & Mary Exhibit
Colleges In Virginia
Image by Special Collections Research Center, Swem Library
Shown here are images from the exhibit "Prejudice so prevalent in the present generation": Slavery at the College of William & Mary, on display just inside the Special Collections Research Center in Swem Library at the College of William and Mary. The exhibit will be on display from March 1-September 2011.

The following is taken from the label text presented in this case:

In 1718, William & Mary bought over 2,000 acres of land, known as Nottoway Quarter, and 17 slaves to work on it. The sale of tobacco grown on this land was a main source of income for the College until it was sold in 1777.

In 1742, slaves working at the College’s plantation at Nottoway Quarter complained about their treatment; in response, the Faculty Assembly sent two professors to investigate their situation. In 1763, the Faculty Assembly appointed a new housekeeper and detailed her role, including her interactions with the College’s slaves.

25 January 1742 and 9 February 1763, Faculty Assembly Records, UA 133

In 1718, the British government granted the College of William & Mary over 20,000 acres of land, which the College rented to local farmers.

Account of Lands belonging to William and Mary College, College Papers Collection, UA 14

Thomas C. Millington Print of the College of William & Mary, John Millington Papers, Mss. 65 M59

In addition to the slaves owned by the College that worked on the plantation at Nottoway Quarter, in 1769 the Faculty Assembly appointed one slave that could go into Williamsburg on errands for the students, but only between 8 and 12 in the morning.

List of Slaves owned by the College of William & Mary, circa 1780, UA 339

28 August 1769, Faculty Assembly Records, UA 133

In the early 19th century William & Mary gave its slaves as a Christmas present.

Account of receipts and expenditures of William & Mary College for the year 1806, College Papers Collection, UA 14

Laws and Regulations of the College of William & Mary in Virginia, 1849, College Papers Collections, UA 14

From the Special Collections Research Center, Earl Gregg Swem Library at the College of William and Mary. See swem.wm.edu/scrc/ for further information and assistance.

“Prejudice so prevalent in the present generation”: Slavery at the College of William & Mary Exhibit

“Prejudice so prevalent in the present generation”: Slavery at the College of William & Mary Exhibit
Colleges In Virginia
Image by Special Collections Research Center, Swem Library
Shown here are images from the exhibit "Prejudice so prevalent in the present generation": Slavery at the College of William & Mary, on display just inside the Special Collections Research Center in Swem Library at the College of William and Mary. The exhibit will be on display from March 1-September 2011.

The following is taken from the label text presented in this case:

In 1718, William & Mary bought over 2,000 acres of land, known as Nottoway Quarter, and 17 slaves to work on it. The sale of tobacco grown on this land was a main source of income for the College until it was sold in 1777.

In 1742, slaves working at the College’s plantation at Nottoway Quarter complained about their treatment; in response, the Faculty Assembly sent two professors to investigate their situation. In 1763, the Faculty Assembly appointed a new housekeeper and detailed her role, including her interactions with the College’s slaves.

25 January 1742 and 9 February 1763, Faculty Assembly Records, UA 133

In 1718, the British government granted the College of William & Mary over 20,000 acres of land, which the College rented to local farmers.

Account of Lands belonging to William and Mary College, College Papers Collection, UA 14

Thomas C. Millington Print of the College of William & Mary, John Millington Papers, Mss. 65 M59

In addition to the slaves owned by the College that worked on the plantation at Nottoway Quarter, in 1769 the Faculty Assembly appointed one slave that could go into Williamsburg on errands for the students, but only between 8 and 12 in the morning.

List of Slaves owned by the College of William & Mary, circa 1780, UA 339

28 August 1769, Faculty Assembly Records, UA 133

In the early 19th century William & Mary gave its slaves as a Christmas present.

Account of receipts and expenditures of William & Mary College for the year 1806, College Papers Collection, UA 14

Laws and Regulations of the College of William & Mary in Virginia, 1849, College Papers Collections, UA 14

From the Special Collections Research Center, Earl Gregg Swem Library at the College of William and Mary. See swem.wm.edu/scrc/ for further information and assistance.

“The World of Henry Billups: Jim Crow at the College of William and Mary” Exhibit

“The World of Henry Billups: Jim Crow at the College of William and Mary” Exhibit
Colleges In Virginia
Image by Special Collections Research Center, Swem Library
Shown here is an image from the exhibit "The World of Henry Billups: Jim Crow at the College of William and Mary," on display in the third floor rotunda gallery of Swem Library at the College of William and Mary. The exhibit was curated by students in Jody Allen’s "World of Henry Billups" class and the Special Collections Research Center staff. The exhibit will be on display from April 28-November 7, 2011.

The following is taken from the label text presented in this case:

Jim Crow in the Williamsburg Area was curated by Kellie O’Malley, Elliott Perkins, and Amanda Reynolds.

Jim Crow in the Williamsburg Area

After the Civil War, the United States was fraught with racial divisions, and Williamsburg was not exempt from these tenuous conditions. During the first half of the twentieth century Jim Crow laws played a strong role in the Williamsburg community. The purpose of this case is to demonstrate the effects of Jim Crow in the Williamsburg area through black and white perspectives.

Marilyn Kaemmerle Editorial

In 1945, Marilyn Kaemmerle was a senior at the College of William & Mary, and editor of the Flat Hat, a student-run newspaper. In the February 7th edition of the Flat Hat Kaemmerle wrote an unattributed editorial titled, “Lincoln’s Job Half-Done.” Kaemmerle argued that although blacks were formally free by law, they were not equal. The release of this editorial caused a massive reaction that spread much further than the William & Mary campus. In response to Kaemmerle’s editorial, newspapers nationwide published articles, editorials and letters to the editor. The William & Mary Board of Visitors removed Kaemmerle from her position as editor of the Flat Hat instituting a policy of student censorship. In 1980, the Board of Visitors issued a formal apology to Marilyn Kaemmerle for her removal as Flat Hat editor. The Flat Hat, February 7, 1945.

The included clippings are articles and editorials from newspapers surrounding the Williamsburg area. The opinions of these editorials range from positive to negative and show the conflicted emotions Marilyn Kaemmerle’s editorial aroused in the community.

Various Newspaper Articles, Marilyn Kaemmerle Collection, 1945.

Photograph of Marilyn Kaemmerle on campus prior to the publication of her editorial “Lincoln’s Job Half-Done.”

Photograph, Marilyn Kaemmerle Collection, circa 1945.

Herman Recht was a lawyer turned Navy yeoman stationed at Camp Peary from October 1943 until February 1946. Recht’s wife Esther lived in Pennsylvania at the time. Recht was well educated and often came into Williamsburg to eat at the Williamsburg Lodge or borrow books from the William and Mary Library. One of the letters that Recht wrote to his wife highlighted the Kaemmerle incident. Recht met with Kaemmerle and a fellow sorority sister at their sorority house and they discussed the editorial. Recht wrote to Esther on twenty-fourth of February, 1945, sharing his opinion of Marilyn and describes of the community’s response. Recht’s knowledge of the editorial showed the scope of the scandal it caused. This incident was not a topic of community conversation. Although Recht was not originally from the Williamsburg area, while stationed in Camp Peary he made an effort to involve himself within the community. Recht’s response to Kaemmerle showed his interest to understand the situation; this response was not entirely atypical but there were many in the community that were upset about the editorial.

Herman Recht to Esther Recht, Herman Recht Papers, February 24, 1945.
Purchase.

Interview with Reverend Junius Moody

The Reverend Junius Moody was a teacher at Bruton Heights School and a pastor of New Zion Baptist Church. He came to live in Williamsburg in 1926 and taught in James City County for 30 years. He also served as chairman of the board and treasurer of the Community Action Agency. In this interview, the Reverend Moody remembers segregation in Williamsburg during the Jim Crow Era. He recalls the experience of segregation and its effects on black children. He also speaks about segregated train cars and schools. The Reverend Moody gave this interview on July 31, 1984.

Interview with Reverend Junius Moody, James City County Oral History Collection, July 31, 1984.

[Miss] W. T. Austin, Williamsburg, Virginia to Dr. Taylor, Williamsburg Virginia. Office of the President, Lyon G. Tyler, June 19, 1913.

Reproduction of a photograph of the Frontiers, Williamsburg Reunion Collection, 2010.

Photograph of Bruton Heights School
Exterior View of Bruton Heights School, black and white print. Visual Resources Collection, John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Library. Courtesy of The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. Image # 1968-CK-623.

Williamsburg Voting Registries, White and Colored

While the 15th amendment granted all men the right to vote, by 1902 in Virginia most black men had lost this right. Voting records kept during the Jim Crow era exemplify the clearly racist policies present during the first half of the twentieth century. Votes made by white and black citizens were recorded in separate books. By juxtaposing the two record books, dissimilarities such as the disparity in number of voters and employment status, are easy to see.

Williamsburg Office of the Registrar Records, 1900-1963.

From the Special Collections Research Center, Earl Gregg Swem Library at the College of William and Mary. See swem.wm.edu/scrc/ for further information and assistance.

“The World of Henry Billups: Jim Crow at the College of William and Mary” Exhibit

“The World of Henry Billups: Jim Crow at the College of William and Mary” Exhibit
Colleges In Virginia
Image by Special Collections Research Center, Swem Library
Shown here is an image from the exhibit "The World of Henry Billups: Jim Crow at the College of William and Mary," on display in the third floor rotunda gallery of Swem Library at the College of William and Mary. The exhibit was curated by students in Jody Allen’s "World of Henry Billups" class and the Special Collections Research Center staff. The exhibit will be on display from April 28-November 7, 2011.

The following is taken from the label text presented in this case:

Creating a Space: Black Student Organizations in the Post-Jim Crow Era was curated by Jerome Carter, Sebastian Kreindel, Andrew Ojeda, and Blair Smith.

Speaking of Black…, The Black Student Organization, Student Organizations Collection, April 1977.

The newsletter presented in this case entitled Speaking of Black… was published in 1977 by the Black Student Organization (B.S.O.). Dr. Warren Buck founded the B.S.O. in 1969 for the purpose of raising awareness about African-Americans at the College of William & Mary and offering assistance to blacks adjusting to student life. Through the newsletter the B.S.O. attempted to provide a voice for African-American students whom often felt isolated in a community lacking diversity. The student published document also discussed black issues on campus and the role of black students within the college, including an editorial by Isiah Parnell expressing his opinions regarding the potential success of the B.S.O. The printing of the names of incoming black freshmen in the newsletter, further demonstrated the B.S.O.’s effort to create a positive and supportive community for black students. This newsletter sheds light on black student life at William and Mary during the 1970’s.

Pamphlets and Booklets from Black Student Groups

These additional documents, from a few black student groups, demonstrate the involvement of African-Americans in campus organizations and their attempt to encourage potential black students to attend William & Mary. Each pamphlet or booklet provides a unique view of black student organizations at the College, emphasizing their efforts to recruit black students.

Involved: Black Student Organization, The Black Student Organization, Student Organizations Collection, circa 1970s.

Law Study…at William and Mary, The Black American Law Students Association Inc.: Marshall-Wythe Chapter, Student Organizations Collection, circa 1970s.

The Changing Scene at the College of William and Mary, The Black Student Organization, Student Organizations Collection, circa 1970s.

Creating A Space: Black Student Organizations in the Post-Jim Crow Era

In the late 1970s there were African American women at the College of William & Mary who felt that their needs were not being met; in response, Mu Upsilon Chapter of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority Incorporated was chartered on February 7, 1976. The charter members are pictured here.

Scrapbook pages, Reproduction of original owned by Mu Upsilon Chapter of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority Incorporated, 1982.
Colonial Echo, 1976.
News Clippings, “Students—Minorities” in University Archives Subject File Collection, 1976, 1986, 1988.

During the 1973-1974 school year, efforts were made to charter an African American fraternity at the College of William & Mary. The next year Willie G. Wedd-Walton (an undergraduate), working with Brother Wendell T. Foster, of the Beta Gamma Lambda Graduate Chapter in Richmond, paved the way to charter the Kappa Pi Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. on campus. The College, initially hesitant to allow an African American fraternity on campus, was persuaded by the advocacy of Sam Sadler, Vice President for Student Affairs. On Saturday, May 31, 1975, the Kappa Pi Chapter was chartered and the light of Alpha was brought to the College of William & Mary. Since that day, Kappa Pi has provided a refuge and support system for its members and the College’s African American community.

Brother William (Bill) Lorenzo Jackson, Jr.’s Alpha Shield, Spring 1975.

Loan of Kappa Pi Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.

The Kappa Pi Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. at the National Convention in Atlanta, 1977.
Reproduction courtesy of Kappa Pi Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.

"To the youths who march onward and upward towards the light this volume is respectfully dedicated." Dedication in A Development in College Life: The History of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. by Charles H. Wesley, Ph.D. (1925; 2000 edition).

The Alpha Phi Alpha photograph collage was created by curator Jerome Carter ’12.

The Kappa Pi Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. Charter, 1975.

The Charter Line was called Ila A Koko
Bro. Timothy Ernest Allmond, Jr.
Bro. Nathaniel Adeoluwa Folarin
Bro. William Lorenzo Jackson, Jr.
Bro. Sheldon Jerome Johnson
Bro. John Oscar Little, Jr.
Bro. Adeyemo Folusho Olanrewaju
Bro. Ronald Harvey Smoot
Bro. Willie George Webb-Walton

Reproduction courtesy of Kappa Pi Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.

Alpha Chapter’s Charter, circa 1930s.

The Alpha Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. was founded on Tuesday, December 4, 1906 at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. This is a replacement of Alpha chapter’s original charter, since the original charter was misplaced. This charter was created in the 1930’s.

Reproduction courtesy of the Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.

In 1975 forty-seven of the eighty minority students at the College of William & Mary were surveyed to get their opinions regarding the College – faculty, administration, other students – and its treatment of minority students. The responses to these questions are shown here. This report, composed by Leroy Moore, head of the Office of Minority Student Affairs, presents the “very depressing” statistical evidence of discontent and mistreatment of minority students at the College. Indeed, the results showed that students felt that they were unwanted by the community, treated unfairly by faculty, and subjected to an insensitive administration. Tellingly, “74% of the respondents would not return, if given the opportunity”. Ultimately with help from the Office of Minority Student Affairs, and collaborations of student groups such as the Black Student Organization with the President of the College at the time, Thomas A. Graves, Jr., progress was made toward bettering the experience of the College’s minority students.
Survey Report, Office of Minority Student Affairs, 1975.

From the Special Collections Research Center, Earl Gregg Swem Library at the College of William and Mary. See swem.wm.edu/scrc/ for further information and assistance.

“The World of Henry Billups: Jim Crow at the College of William and Mary” Exhibit

“The World of Henry Billups: Jim Crow at the College of William and Mary” Exhibit
Colleges In Virginia
Image by Special Collections Research Center, Swem Library
Shown here is an image from the exhibit "The World of Henry Billups: Jim Crow at the College of William and Mary," on display in the third floor rotunda gallery of Swem Library at the College of William and Mary. The exhibit was curated by students in Jody Allen’s "World of Henry Billups" class and the Special Collections Research Center staff. The exhibit will be on display from April 28-November 7, 2011.

The following is taken from the label text presented in this case:

Creating a Space: Black Student Organizations in the Post-Jim Crow Era was curated by Jerome Carter, Sebastian Kreindel, Andrew Ojeda, and Blair Smith.

Speaking of Black…, The Black Student Organization, Student Organizations Collection, April 1977.

The newsletter presented in this case entitled Speaking of Black… was published in 1977 by the Black Student Organization (B.S.O.). Dr. Warren Buck founded the B.S.O. in 1969 for the purpose of raising awareness about African-Americans at the College of William & Mary and offering assistance to blacks adjusting to student life. Through the newsletter the B.S.O. attempted to provide a voice for African-American students whom often felt isolated in a community lacking diversity. The student published document also discussed black issues on campus and the role of black students within the college, including an editorial by Isiah Parnell expressing his opinions regarding the potential success of the B.S.O. The printing of the names of incoming black freshmen in the newsletter, further demonstrated the B.S.O.’s effort to create a positive and supportive community for black students. This newsletter sheds light on black student life at William and Mary during the 1970’s.

Pamphlets and Booklets from Black Student Groups

These additional documents, from a few black student groups, demonstrate the involvement of African-Americans in campus organizations and their attempt to encourage potential black students to attend William & Mary. Each pamphlet or booklet provides a unique view of black student organizations at the College, emphasizing their efforts to recruit black students.

Involved: Black Student Organization, The Black Student Organization, Student Organizations Collection, circa 1970s.

Law Study…at William and Mary, The Black American Law Students Association Inc.: Marshall-Wythe Chapter, Student Organizations Collection, circa 1970s.

The Changing Scene at the College of William and Mary, The Black Student Organization, Student Organizations Collection, circa 1970s.

Creating A Space: Black Student Organizations in the Post-Jim Crow Era

In the late 1970s there were African American women at the College of William & Mary who felt that their needs were not being met; in response, Mu Upsilon Chapter of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority Incorporated was chartered on February 7, 1976. The charter members are pictured here.

Scrapbook pages, Reproduction of original owned by Mu Upsilon Chapter of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority Incorporated, 1982.
Colonial Echo, 1976.
News Clippings, “Students—Minorities” in University Archives Subject File Collection, 1976, 1986, 1988.

During the 1973-1974 school year, efforts were made to charter an African American fraternity at the College of William & Mary. The next year Willie G. Wedd-Walton (an undergraduate), working with Brother Wendell T. Foster, of the Beta Gamma Lambda Graduate Chapter in Richmond, paved the way to charter the Kappa Pi Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. on campus. The College, initially hesitant to allow an African American fraternity on campus, was persuaded by the advocacy of Sam Sadler, Vice President for Student Affairs. On Saturday, May 31, 1975, the Kappa Pi Chapter was chartered and the light of Alpha was brought to the College of William & Mary. Since that day, Kappa Pi has provided a refuge and support system for its members and the College’s African American community.

Brother William (Bill) Lorenzo Jackson, Jr.’s Alpha Shield, Spring 1975.

Loan of Kappa Pi Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.

The Kappa Pi Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. at the National Convention in Atlanta, 1977.
Reproduction courtesy of Kappa Pi Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.

"To the youths who march onward and upward towards the light this volume is respectfully dedicated." Dedication in A Development in College Life: The History of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. by Charles H. Wesley, Ph.D. (1925; 2000 edition).

The Alpha Phi Alpha photograph collage was created by curator Jerome Carter ’12.

The Kappa Pi Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. Charter, 1975.

The Charter Line was called Ila A Koko
Bro. Timothy Ernest Allmond, Jr.
Bro. Nathaniel Adeoluwa Folarin
Bro. William Lorenzo Jackson, Jr.
Bro. Sheldon Jerome Johnson
Bro. John Oscar Little, Jr.
Bro. Adeyemo Folusho Olanrewaju
Bro. Ronald Harvey Smoot
Bro. Willie George Webb-Walton

Reproduction courtesy of Kappa Pi Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.

Alpha Chapter’s Charter, circa 1930s.

The Alpha Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. was founded on Tuesday, December 4, 1906 at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. This is a replacement of Alpha chapter’s original charter, since the original charter was misplaced. This charter was created in the 1930’s.

Reproduction courtesy of the Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.

In 1975 forty-seven of the eighty minority students at the College of William & Mary were surveyed to get their opinions regarding the College – faculty, administration, other students – and its treatment of minority students. The responses to these questions are shown here. This report, composed by Leroy Moore, head of the Office of Minority Student Affairs, presents the “very depressing” statistical evidence of discontent and mistreatment of minority students at the College. Indeed, the results showed that students felt that they were unwanted by the community, treated unfairly by faculty, and subjected to an insensitive administration. Tellingly, “74% of the respondents would not return, if given the opportunity”. Ultimately with help from the Office of Minority Student Affairs, and collaborations of student groups such as the Black Student Organization with the President of the College at the time, Thomas A. Graves, Jr., progress was made toward bettering the experience of the College’s minority students.
Survey Report, Office of Minority Student Affairs, 1975.

From the Special Collections Research Center, Earl Gregg Swem Library at the College of William and Mary. See swem.wm.edu/scrc/ for further information and assistance.

“The World of Henry Billups: Jim Crow at the College of William and Mary” Exhibit

“The World of Henry Billups: Jim Crow at the College of William and Mary” Exhibit
Colleges In Virginia
Image by Special Collections Research Center, Swem Library
Shown here is an image from the exhibit "The World of Henry Billups: Jim Crow at the College of William and Mary," on display in the third floor rotunda gallery of Swem Library at the College of William and Mary. The exhibit was curated by students in Jody Allen’s "World of Henry Billups" class and the Special Collections Research Center staff. The exhibit will be on display from April 28-November 7, 2011.

The following is taken from the label text presented in this case:

Creating a Space: Black Student Organizations in the Post-Jim Crow Era was curated by Jerome Carter, Sebastian Kreindel, Andrew Ojeda, and Blair Smith.

Speaking of Black…, The Black Student Organization, Student Organizations Collection, April 1977.

The newsletter presented in this case entitled Speaking of Black… was published in 1977 by the Black Student Organization (B.S.O.). Dr. Warren Buck founded the B.S.O. in 1969 for the purpose of raising awareness about African-Americans at the College of William & Mary and offering assistance to blacks adjusting to student life. Through the newsletter the B.S.O. attempted to provide a voice for African-American students whom often felt isolated in a community lacking diversity. The student published document also discussed black issues on campus and the role of black students within the college, including an editorial by Isiah Parnell expressing his opinions regarding the potential success of the B.S.O. The printing of the names of incoming black freshmen in the newsletter, further demonstrated the B.S.O.’s effort to create a positive and supportive community for black students. This newsletter sheds light on black student life at William and Mary during the 1970’s.

Pamphlets and Booklets from Black Student Groups

These additional documents, from a few black student groups, demonstrate the involvement of African-Americans in campus organizations and their attempt to encourage potential black students to attend William & Mary. Each pamphlet or booklet provides a unique view of black student organizations at the College, emphasizing their efforts to recruit black students.

Involved: Black Student Organization, The Black Student Organization, Student Organizations Collection, circa 1970s.

Law Study…at William and Mary, The Black American Law Students Association Inc.: Marshall-Wythe Chapter, Student Organizations Collection, circa 1970s.

The Changing Scene at the College of William and Mary, The Black Student Organization, Student Organizations Collection, circa 1970s.

Creating A Space: Black Student Organizations in the Post-Jim Crow Era

In the late 1970s there were African American women at the College of William & Mary who felt that their needs were not being met; in response, Mu Upsilon Chapter of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority Incorporated was chartered on February 7, 1976. The charter members are pictured here.

Scrapbook pages, Reproduction of original owned by Mu Upsilon Chapter of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority Incorporated, 1982.
Colonial Echo, 1976.
News Clippings, “Students—Minorities” in University Archives Subject File Collection, 1976, 1986, 1988.

During the 1973-1974 school year, efforts were made to charter an African American fraternity at the College of William & Mary. The next year Willie G. Wedd-Walton (an undergraduate), working with Brother Wendell T. Foster, of the Beta Gamma Lambda Graduate Chapter in Richmond, paved the way to charter the Kappa Pi Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. on campus. The College, initially hesitant to allow an African American fraternity on campus, was persuaded by the advocacy of Sam Sadler, Vice President for Student Affairs. On Saturday, May 31, 1975, the Kappa Pi Chapter was chartered and the light of Alpha was brought to the College of William & Mary. Since that day, Kappa Pi has provided a refuge and support system for its members and the College’s African American community.

Brother William (Bill) Lorenzo Jackson, Jr.’s Alpha Shield, Spring 1975.

Loan of Kappa Pi Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.

The Kappa Pi Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. at the National Convention in Atlanta, 1977.
Reproduction courtesy of Kappa Pi Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.

"To the youths who march onward and upward towards the light this volume is respectfully dedicated." Dedication in A Development in College Life: The History of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. by Charles H. Wesley, Ph.D. (1925; 2000 edition).

The Alpha Phi Alpha photograph collage was created by curator Jerome Carter ’12.

The Kappa Pi Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. Charter, 1975.

The Charter Line was called Ila A Koko
Bro. Timothy Ernest Allmond, Jr.
Bro. Nathaniel Adeoluwa Folarin
Bro. William Lorenzo Jackson, Jr.
Bro. Sheldon Jerome Johnson
Bro. John Oscar Little, Jr.
Bro. Adeyemo Folusho Olanrewaju
Bro. Ronald Harvey Smoot
Bro. Willie George Webb-Walton

Reproduction courtesy of Kappa Pi Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.

Alpha Chapter’s Charter, circa 1930s.

The Alpha Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. was founded on Tuesday, December 4, 1906 at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. This is a replacement of Alpha chapter’s original charter, since the original charter was misplaced. This charter was created in the 1930’s.

Reproduction courtesy of the Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.

In 1975 forty-seven of the eighty minority students at the College of William & Mary were surveyed to get their opinions regarding the College – faculty, administration, other students – and its treatment of minority students. The responses to these questions are shown here. This report, composed by Leroy Moore, head of the Office of Minority Student Affairs, presents the “very depressing” statistical evidence of discontent and mistreatment of minority students at the College. Indeed, the results showed that students felt that they were unwanted by the community, treated unfairly by faculty, and subjected to an insensitive administration. Tellingly, “74% of the respondents would not return, if given the opportunity”. Ultimately with help from the Office of Minority Student Affairs, and collaborations of student groups such as the Black Student Organization with the President of the College at the time, Thomas A. Graves, Jr., progress was made toward bettering the experience of the College’s minority students.
Survey Report, Office of Minority Student Affairs, 1975.

From the Special Collections Research Center, Earl Gregg Swem Library at the College of William and Mary. See swem.wm.edu/scrc/ for further information and assistance.

“The World of Henry Billups: Jim Crow at the College of William and Mary” Exhibit

“The World of Henry Billups: Jim Crow at the College of William and Mary” Exhibit
Colleges In Virginia
Image by Special Collections Research Center, Swem Library
Shown here is an image from the exhibit "The World of Henry Billups: Jim Crow at the College of William and Mary," on display in the third floor rotunda gallery of Swem Library at the College of William and Mary. The exhibit was curated by students in Jody Allen’s "World of Henry Billups" class and the Special Collections Research Center staff. The exhibit will be on display from April 28-November 7, 2011.

The following is taken from the label text presented in this case:

Creating a Space: Black Student Organizations in the Post-Jim Crow Era was curated by Jerome Carter, Sebastian Kreindel, Andrew Ojeda, and Blair Smith.

Speaking of Black…, The Black Student Organization, Student Organizations Collection, April 1977.

The newsletter presented in this case entitled Speaking of Black… was published in 1977 by the Black Student Organization (B.S.O.). Dr. Warren Buck founded the B.S.O. in 1969 for the purpose of raising awareness about African-Americans at the College of William & Mary and offering assistance to blacks adjusting to student life. Through the newsletter the B.S.O. attempted to provide a voice for African-American students whom often felt isolated in a community lacking diversity. The student published document also discussed black issues on campus and the role of black students within the college, including an editorial by Isiah Parnell expressing his opinions regarding the potential success of the B.S.O. The printing of the names of incoming black freshmen in the newsletter, further demonstrated the B.S.O.’s effort to create a positive and supportive community for black students. This newsletter sheds light on black student life at William and Mary during the 1970’s.

Pamphlets and Booklets from Black Student Groups

These additional documents, from a few black student groups, demonstrate the involvement of African-Americans in campus organizations and their attempt to encourage potential black students to attend William & Mary. Each pamphlet or booklet provides a unique view of black student organizations at the College, emphasizing their efforts to recruit black students.

Involved: Black Student Organization, The Black Student Organization, Student Organizations Collection, circa 1970s.

Law Study…at William and Mary, The Black American Law Students Association Inc.: Marshall-Wythe Chapter, Student Organizations Collection, circa 1970s.

The Changing Scene at the College of William and Mary, The Black Student Organization, Student Organizations Collection, circa 1970s.

Creating A Space: Black Student Organizations in the Post-Jim Crow Era

In the late 1970s there were African American women at the College of William & Mary who felt that their needs were not being met; in response, Mu Upsilon Chapter of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority Incorporated was chartered on February 7, 1976. The charter members are pictured here.

Scrapbook pages, Reproduction of original owned by Mu Upsilon Chapter of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority Incorporated, 1982.
Colonial Echo, 1976.
News Clippings, “Students—Minorities” in University Archives Subject File Collection, 1976, 1986, 1988.

During the 1973-1974 school year, efforts were made to charter an African American fraternity at the College of William & Mary. The next year Willie G. Wedd-Walton (an undergraduate), working with Brother Wendell T. Foster, of the Beta Gamma Lambda Graduate Chapter in Richmond, paved the way to charter the Kappa Pi Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. on campus. The College, initially hesitant to allow an African American fraternity on campus, was persuaded by the advocacy of Sam Sadler, Vice President for Student Affairs. On Saturday, May 31, 1975, the Kappa Pi Chapter was chartered and the light of Alpha was brought to the College of William & Mary. Since that day, Kappa Pi has provided a refuge and support system for its members and the College’s African American community.

Brother William (Bill) Lorenzo Jackson, Jr.’s Alpha Shield, Spring 1975.

Loan of Kappa Pi Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.

The Kappa Pi Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. at the National Convention in Atlanta, 1977.
Reproduction courtesy of Kappa Pi Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.

"To the youths who march onward and upward towards the light this volume is respectfully dedicated." Dedication in A Development in College Life: The History of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. by Charles H. Wesley, Ph.D. (1925; 2000 edition).

The Alpha Phi Alpha photograph collage was created by curator Jerome Carter ’12.

The Kappa Pi Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. Charter, 1975.

The Charter Line was called Ila A Koko
Bro. Timothy Ernest Allmond, Jr.
Bro. Nathaniel Adeoluwa Folarin
Bro. William Lorenzo Jackson, Jr.
Bro. Sheldon Jerome Johnson
Bro. John Oscar Little, Jr.
Bro. Adeyemo Folusho Olanrewaju
Bro. Ronald Harvey Smoot
Bro. Willie George Webb-Walton

Reproduction courtesy of Kappa Pi Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.

Alpha Chapter’s Charter, circa 1930s.

The Alpha Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. was founded on Tuesday, December 4, 1906 at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. This is a replacement of Alpha chapter’s original charter, since the original charter was misplaced. This charter was created in the 1930’s.

Reproduction courtesy of the Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.

In 1975 forty-seven of the eighty minority students at the College of William & Mary were surveyed to get their opinions regarding the College – faculty, administration, other students – and its treatment of minority students. The responses to these questions are shown here. This report, composed by Leroy Moore, head of the Office of Minority Student Affairs, presents the “very depressing” statistical evidence of discontent and mistreatment of minority students at the College. Indeed, the results showed that students felt that they were unwanted by the community, treated unfairly by faculty, and subjected to an insensitive administration. Tellingly, “74% of the respondents would not return, if given the opportunity”. Ultimately with help from the Office of Minority Student Affairs, and collaborations of student groups such as the Black Student Organization with the President of the College at the time, Thomas A. Graves, Jr., progress was made toward bettering the experience of the College’s minority students.
Survey Report, Office of Minority Student Affairs, 1975.

From the Special Collections Research Center, Earl Gregg Swem Library at the College of William and Mary. See swem.wm.edu/scrc/ for further information and assistance.

College of William and Mary

College of William and Mary
Colleges In Virginia
Image by Cornell University Library
Collection: A. D. White Architectural Photographs, Cornell University Library
Accession Number: 15/5/3090.00557

Title: College of William and Mary

Map date: ca. 1781-ca. 1782
Photograph date: ca. 1935

Location: North and Central America: United States; Virginia, Williamsburg

Materials: gelatin silver print

Image: 7 x 9 1/4 in.; 17.78 x 23.495 cm

Provenance: Transfer from the College of Architecture, Art and Planning

Persistent URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1813.001/5sp5

There are no known U.S. copyright restrictions on this image. The digital file is owned by the Cornell University Library which is making it freely available with the request that, when possible, the Library be credited as its source.

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